Weather observation report from ship

Introduction/Additional information: 

This message provides weather information observed on a ship in navigation.

Two different messages can be transmitted:
.1 Weather observation report from ship; or
.2 WMO Weather observation report from ship.

Table 10.1 outlines the parameters associated with the Weather observation report from ship message.

Table 10.2 outlines the parameters associated with the WMO Weather observation report from ship message.

The WMO Weather observation report from ship message is intended for ships which have been recruited by national meteorological services to undertake weather observations at sea in accordance with the provisions of SOLAS chapter V, regulation 5, and the World Meteorological Organization's Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) Scheme. Because national meteorological services are the intended primary users of this message it has been developed to reflect the coding principles prescribed by WMO in its Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR), and as contained in Part B of WMO Publication No.306, (Manual Codes, Volume I.2). The parameters coded in this message are therefore not fully compatible with the recommendations set out in ITU M.1371-3.

10.4.2 The WMO Weather observation report from ship message includes all the parameters that are typically reported by voluntary observing ships, as well as additional parameters reported by ships that are recruited to the VOS Scheme to report climate quality weather observations (indicated as VOSClim parameters in the message description). The message format also accords with formats being developed for use in connection with shipboard automatic weather stations

Registrant: 
IMO Circ. 289
Message number: 
8
DAC: 
1
FI: 
21
State: 
in force
Number of slots (max): 
2
Permitted as from: 
01/06/2010
Details: 

 

Table 10.1

Weather observation report from ship

 

Parameter

No of bits

Description

Message ID

6

Identifier for Message 8; always 8.

Repeat Indicator

2

Used by the repeater to indicate how many times a message has been repeated.

0 - 3

0 = default

3 = do not repeat anymore

Source ID

30

MMSI number of source station.

Spare

2

Not used. Should be set to zero.

IAI

16

DAC = 001; FI = 21

Type of Weather report

1

Always 0

Geographic Location

120

20 characters 6-bits ASCII as defined in ITU-R M. 1371-3, Table 44

Position of Observation, Longitude

25

Longitude in 1/1,000 min, ±180 degrees as per 2's complement (East = positive, West = negative).

181 = not available = default

Position of Observation, Latitude

24

Latitude in 1/1,000 min, ±90 degrees as per 2's complement (North = positive, South = negative).

91 degrees = not available = default

Date and Time of Observation

 

UTC Date and time of observation.

UTC Day

5

1 - 31

0 = not available

UTC Hour

5

0 - 23

24 = not available = default

UTC Minute

6

0 - 59

60 = not available = default

Present Weather

4

(Based on WMO Code 45501)

0 = clear (no clouds at any level)

1 = cloudy

2 = rain

3 = fog

4 = snow

5 = typhoon/hurricane

6 = monsoon

7 = thunderstorm

8 = not available = default

9 - 15 (reserved for future use)

Horizontal Visibility

8

Horizontal visibility, in 0.1 Nautical Miles steps (00000000 to 01111111).

0.0 - 12.6 Nautical Miles

The most significant bit (MSB) indicates that the maximum range of the visibility equipment was reached and the reading shall be regarded as > x.x NM. (e.g., if 10110010, then visibility is  5.0 NM or greater)

127 = data not available = default

Relative Humidity

7

Relative Humidity, in 1% steps.

0 - 100%

101 = not available = default

102 -127  (reserved for future use)

Average Wind Speed

7

Average of wind speed values over the last 10 minutes, in 1 knot steps.

0 - 125 knots

126 = wind 126 knots or greater

127 = not available = default

Wind Direction

9

Direction of the average wind over the last 10 minutes, in 1 degree steps.

0 - 359 degrees

360 = not available = default

361-511  (reserved for future use)

Air Pressure

9

Air pressure at sea level, in 1 hPa steps.

0 = pressure 799 hPa or less

1 - 401 = 800 - 1200 hPa

402 = pressure 1201 hPa or greater

403  = not available = default

404-511 = (reserved for future use).

Air Pressure tendency

4

Use WMO FM13 Codes for pressure characteristic over the last three hours.

Codes 0 - 8

Air Temperature

11

Dry bulb temperature in degrees Celsius (as per 2's complement), in 0.1 degree steps.

-60.0 to +60.0 degrees

)

-1,024 = data not available = default

601 - 1,023 (reserved for future use)

-1,023 to -601 (reserved for future use)

Water Temperature

10

Temperature of the water in degrees Celsius (as per 2's complement), in 0.1 degree steps.

-10.0 to +50.0 degrees

 

501 = not available=default

502-511(reserved for future use)

-511 to - 101(reserved for future use)

Wave period

6

Wave period, in 1 second steps

0 - 60 seconds

63 = not available = default

61 - 62  (reserved for future use)

Significant Wave height

8

Height of the waves, in 0.1 metre steps.

0.0 - 25.0 metres

251 = height 25.1 metres or greater

255 = not available = default

252 - 254  (reserved for future use)

Wave Direction

9

Direction of waves, in 1 degree steps.

0 - 359 degrees

360 = not available = default

361-511 (reserved for future use)

Swell Height

8

Height of the swell, in 0.1 metre steps.

0.0 - 25.0 metres

251 = height 25.1 metres or greater

255 = not available = default

252 - 254  (reserved for future use)

Swell Direction

9

Direction of swells, in 1 degree steps.

0 - 359 degrees

360 = not available = default

361-511 ( reserved for future use)

Swell Period

6

Swell period, in 1 second steps.

0 - 60 seconds

63 = not available = default

61 - 62  (reserved for future use)

Spare

3

Not used. Set to zero.

Total

360

Occupies 2 slots

 

 

 

Table 10.2

WMO Weather observation report from ship

 

Parameter

No of bits

Description

Message ID

6

Identifier for Message 8; always 8.

Repeat Indicator

2

 

Used by the repeater to indicate how many times a message has been repeated.

0 - 3

0 = default

3 = do not repeat anymore

Source ID

30

MMSI number of source station

Spare

2

Not used. Set to zero.

IAI

16

DAC = 001; FI =21

Type of weather report

1

always 1

Position of Observation, Longitude

16

 

BUFR  006002

Longitude in 1/100 min, ±180 degrees (East = positive, West = negative)

Lon = (Integer value / 100) - 180 for Integer = 0 - 36,000

65,535 = not available = default

Position of  Observation, Latitude

15

 

BUFR  005002

Latitude in 1/100 min,  ±90 degrees as per 2's complement (North = positive, South = negative)

Lat = (Integer value / 100) - 9000 for Integer = 0 - 18,000

32,767 = not available = default

Date and Time of Observation

 

UTC Date and time of observation.

UTC Month

4

BUFR  004002

1 - 12 (offset = 0)

Month = Integer value

15 = not available = default

UTC Day

6

BUFR  004003

1 - 31 (offset = 0)

Day = (Integer value) for integer = 1-31

63 = not available = default

UTC Hour

5

BUFR  004004

0 - 23 (offset = 0)

Hour = Integer value

31 = not available = default

UTC Minute

3

BUFR  004005

0 - 50 (offset = 0)

Minute = (Integer value * 10) for integer = 0-5

7 = not available = default

Ship's Course Over Ground
(over the past 10 minutes)

7

BUFR  001012  (VOSClim parameter)

005 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

COG = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 - 72

0 = stopped

127 = not available = default

Average Speed Over Ground
(over the past 10 minutes)

5

BUFR  001013  (VOSClim parameter)

0 - 14.5 m/s (offset = 0)

SOG = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 29
30 = 15 m/s and more

31 = not available = default

Average heading of the ship
(over the past 10 minutes)

7

BUFR  (tbd) (VOSClim parameter)

005 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

HDT = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 - 72

127 = not available = default

Pressure reduced to sea level

11

BUFR  010051

900 - 1100 hPa (offset = 900)

Pressure = (Integer value / 10) + 900 for Integer = 0 - 2,000

2,047 = not available = default

3-hour pressure change
(relative value)

10

BUFR  010061

-50 to +50 hPa (offset = -50)

Tend. = (Integer value / 10) - 50 for Integer = 0 - 1,000

1,023 = not available = default

Characteristic of pressure tendency

4

BUFR  010063

WMO BUFR table 010063 for pressure characteristic 
over last three hours, Codes 0 - 8

15 = not available = default

True wind direction
(average over 10 minutes)

7

BUFR  011001

005 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 - 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

True wind speed

(average over 10 minutes)

8

BUFR  011002

0 - 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 254

255 = not available = default

Relative wind direction
(average over 10 minutes)

7

BUFR  (tbd) (VOSClim parameter)

005 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 - 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

Relative wind speed
(average over 10 minutes)

8

BUFR  (tbd) VOSClim parameter

0 - 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 254

255 = not available = default

Maximum wind gust speed

8

BUFR  011041

0 - 127 m/s (offset = 0)

Speed = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 254

255 = not available = default

Maximum wind gust direction

7

BUFR  011043

005 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Direction = (Integer value * 5) for Integer = 1 - 72

0 = calm

127 = not available = default

Air temperature (dry bulb)

10

BUFR  012101

223 - 323 K (offset = 223) (i.e. circa -50 to +50 °C)

Temp. = (Integer value / 10) + 223 for Integer = 0 - 1000

1,023 = not available = default

Relative humidity

7

BUFR  013003

0 - 100 % (offset = 0)

Rh = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 - 100

127 = not available = default

Sea surface temperature

9

BUFR  022042

268 to 318 K (offset = 268) (i.e. circa -5 to +45 °C)

Sea Temp. = (Integer value / 10) + 268 for Integer = 0 - 500

511 = not available = default

Horizontal visibility

6

BUFR  020001

0 to 50,000 m (offset = 0)

Visibility = ([(Integer value)**2] * 13.073) for Integer = 0 - 62

63 = not available = default

Present weather

9

BUFR  020003 (WMO BUFR table 020003 for present weather, Codes 0 - 510)

511 = not available = default

Past weather 1

5

BUFR  020004 (WMO BUFR table 020004 for past weather, Codes 0 - 30)

31 = not available = default

Past weather 2

5

BUFR  020005 (WMO BUFR table 020005 for past weather, Codes 0 - 30)

31 = not available = default

Total cloud cover

4

BUFR  020010

0 to 100 % (offset = 0)

Cover = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 0 - 10

15 = not available = default 

Cloud amount (low)

4

BUFR  020011 (WMO BUFR table 020011 for cloud amount, Codes 0 - 14)

15 = not available = default 

Cloud type (low)

6

BUFR  020012 (WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0 - 62)

63 = not available = default

Cloud type (middle)

6

BUFR  020012

WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0-62

63 = not available = default

Cloud type (high)

6

BUFR  020012 (WMO BUFR table 020012 for cloud type, Codes 0 - 62)

63 = not available = default

Height of base of lowest cloud

7

BUFR  020013

0 - 2,500 m (offset = 0)

Height = ([(Integer value)**2] * 0.16) for Integer = 0 - 125

126 = more than 2500 m

127 = not available = default

Period of wind waves

5

BUFR  022012

0 - 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 - 30

31 = not available = default   

Height of wind waves

6

BUFR  022022

0 - 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 60

63 = not available = default

Direction of first swell (from which the swell is coming)

6

BUFR  022003

10 - 360 deg (offset 0).

Direction = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 1 - 36

0 = calm

63 = not available = default

Period of first swell

5

BUFR  022013

0 - 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 - 30

31 = not available = default   

Height of first swell

6

BUFR  022023

0 - 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 60

63 = not available = default

Direction of second swell (from which the swell is coming)

6

BUFR  022003

10 - 360 deg (offset 0).

Direction = (Integer value * 10) for Integer = 1 - 36

0 = calm

63 = not available = default

Period of second Swell

5

BUFR  022013

0 - 30 s (offset = 0)

Period = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 - 30

31 = not available = default

Height of second swell

6

BUFR  022023

0 - 30 m (offset = 0)

Height = (Integer value * 0.5) for Integer = 0 - 60

63 = not available = default

Ice deposit (thickness)

7

BUFR  020031

0 - 126 cm (offset = 0)

Thickness = (Integer value) for Integer = 0 - 126

127 = not available = default

Rate of ice accretion

3

BUFR  020032 (WMO BUFR table 020032 for rate of ice accretion, Codes 0 - 6)

7 = not available = default 

Cause of ice accretion

3

BUFR  020033 (WMO BUFR table 020033 for cause of ice accretion, Codes 0 - 6)

7 = not available = default

Sea ice concentration

5

BUFR  020034 (WMO BUFR table 020034 for sea ice concentration, Codes 0 - 30)

31 = not available = default

Amount and type of ice

4

BUFR  020035 ( WMO BUFR table 020035 for amount and type of ice, Codes 0 - 14)

15 = not available = default

Ice situation

5

BUFR  020036 (WMO BUFR table 020036 for ice situation,
Codes 0 - 30)

31 = not available = default

Ice development

5

BUFR  020037 (WMO BUFR table 020037 for ice development, Codes 0 - 30)

31 = not available = default

Bearing of ice edge

4

BUFR  020038

045 - 360 deg. (offset = 0)

Bearing = (Integer value * 45) for Integer = 1-8

15 = not available = default

Total

360

Occupies 2 slots